Any mouse which has its genome altered using any genetic engineering technique is termed as genetically modified or a “transgenic” mouse. The power of introducing foreign DNA precisely and permanently into the genome of animals has enhanced the potential of biological research. Transgenic animals are used in many applications like…

In research, data is evaluated through statistical significance and practical significance. Statistical significance is the term we frequently use without true understanding. Statistical significance means an inferential statistic that links sample data to population data (Rosen and DeMaria, 2011). The first step of testing statistical significance is to form a…

PCR stands for Polymerase Chain Reaction. Under the current global pandemic situation, PCR has become one of the most effective methods of controlling the pandemic in means of accurate and early detection of COVID-19. Simply, a selected region of a DNA molecule is identified and amplified in PCR. The target…

Cell-Penetrating Peptide Mediates Intracellular Membrane Passage of Human Papillomavirus L2 Protein to Trigger Retrograde Trafficking

Pengwei Zhang, Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, Catherine Deatherage, Christopher Burd, Daniel DiMaio (2018).

Summarised by Changin Oh

Original article —

Cellular membranes are the first line of host defense that physically block invading viruses…

Consider the fact that our cells contain the same DNA, but different cell types exist in our body; neurons, skin cells, liver cells, and others. How is this possible? Why are monozygotic twins, not actually identical? Why could a genetics experiment yield an inconclusive result?

The answer; epigenetics.

What is…

Sekine, Andre Perez, Olga Rivera, Kristoffer, Jean-Baptiste, Annika Olsson, Sian, Habiba Kamal, Gordana Bogdanovic , Sandra Muschiol, David, Tobias Kammann, Johanna, Tiphaine Parrot, Elin Folkesson (2020)

Summarised by: Liping Wang

Original article:

The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 can be quite different between individuals; the mortality is high among aging…

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