Any mouse which has its genome altered using any genetic engineering technique is termed as genetically modified or a “transgenic” mouse. The power of introducing foreign DNA precisely and permanently into the genome of animals has enhanced the potential of biological research. Transgenic animals are used in many applications like…


“How can I get a Ph.D.?”

“What would happen after getting a degree or a Ph.D.?”

“Can I be a researcher who unravels deep secrets, concepts in the bioscience world?”

Do you always wonder and trouble yourself with these problems? Then you may be someone who loves and is curious…


In research, data is evaluated through statistical significance and practical significance. Statistical significance is the term we frequently use without true understanding. Statistical significance means an inferential statistic that links sample data to population data (Rosen and DeMaria, 2011). The first step of testing statistical significance is to form a…


PCR stands for Polymerase Chain Reaction. Under the current global pandemic situation, PCR has become one of the most effective methods of controlling the pandemic in means of accurate and early detection of COVID-19. Simply, a selected region of a DNA molecule is identified and amplified in PCR. The target…


Cell-Penetrating Peptide Mediates Intracellular Membrane Passage of Human Papillomavirus L2 Protein to Trigger Retrograde Trafficking

Pengwei Zhang, Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, Catherine Deatherage, Christopher Burd, Daniel DiMaio (2018).

Summarised by Changin Oh

Original article — https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.07.031

Cellular membranes are the first line of host defense that physically block invading viruses…


Consider the fact that our cells contain the same DNA, but different cell types exist in our body; neurons, skin cells, liver cells, and others. How is this possible? Why are monozygotic twins, not actually identical? Why could a genetics experiment yield an inconclusive result?

The answer; epigenetics.

What is…


Xenobots are living reconfigurable biobots created using the stem cells of African Clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). The first designs of the xenobots were created by the University of Vermont in collaboration with Tufts University’s Allen discovery centre.

An individual xenobot is composed of about 500 -1000 cells; making each one…


You can be anything you want to be when you grow up!

Say the stem cells as they are a special type of cells that have a remarkable potential to renew themselves and an ability to differentiate into specific cell types. With their capability to regenerate and repair tissues, studies…


Sekine, Andre Perez, Olga Rivera, Kristoffer, Jean-Baptiste, Annika Olsson, Sian, Habiba Kamal, Gordana Bogdanovic , Sandra Muschiol, David, Tobias Kammann, Johanna, Tiphaine Parrot, Elin Folkesson (2020)

Summarised by: Liping Wang

Original article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867420310084?via%3Dihub

The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 can be quite different between individuals; the mortality is high among aging…


What is gene therapy?

The average human body consists of trillions of small building blocks called cells. Within each of these cells, there are numerous genes. Genes contain the necessary genetic information to govern our bodily functions; As an example, a particular gene carries this unique “code” that is needed…

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